Networked Media – Week 11

This week we watched the following videos for our discussion:

Connected, but alone? by Sherry Turkle

Program or be programmed by Douglas Rushkoff

We are all cyborgs now by Amber Case

 

All three talks discuss the implications of technology that enables global peer to peer communication. Sherry Turkle, in her talk, explains her concern that we may forget how to communicate in the real world as a result of our technological advances. Douglas Rushkoff discusses media literacy, and Amber Case argues that newer forms of technology is just that -technology. It enables us to perform tasks more efficiently. Turkle, Rushkoff, and Case talk about the need for better understanding of our new media, and prescribe that we take control over how they affect us, as opposed to passively letting technology affect us.

Some questions that came to my mind while watching these videos were:

  1. The argument about not being present, while valid, is something that I’ve always wondered about. I agree that trying to be in the real world when other people are around is great, but maybe being always connected, and immediately responsive is the future of how we deal with relationships. It does sound frightening, but what if this is the case? Is it really that bad?
  2. I do agree that being more mindful and aware of the services we use is something important. However, this seems easier said that done. As technologists, we know these new media. Anyone not involved in this field is likely not going to care as much. Of course, we technologists could be the evangelists of this information, but getting people interested seems a far greater challenge.
  3. I’ve always believed that tools just make our intentions easier – from the internet to guns – what we do with them is a reflection of who we are. Guns might not be the trigger to kill someone, but it enables the action, makes it so simple to act on impulse. The same goes for how we communicate on the internet.

Doing Good Final – part 3

This week, we had to focus on the points below:

 

  • Focus down your problem statement and anchor it to a physical location (remote is ok, but then you need to find a location close to you as well where that problem is also present and where you will conduct your research)
  • Once you have a specific problem statement, refine a systems map, which will help you identify users (make it more concrete by anchoring it to the specific location)
  • Identify a user or users (whom you can access) that you meet with in person. If the location is remote, again, identify a user in that space but then focus on the local user whom you can actually talk to.
  • Build a research plan on how many users you would like to reach out to (I would encourage 3-5), what questions you would like to ask them and how you would want to engage with them.

This is still on-going, but at the time of posting this, here’s what we came up with:
(the live document with evolving changes is available for viewing here)

 

  1. BIG PROBLEM STATEMENT

The problem of inequality of food access affects economically challenged people all over the world.

 

How might we better redistribute wasted food from events, and local farms for low-income individuals in order to ensure access and education to healthy nutrition.

 

  1. SYSTEMS MAP

Local farmer in the area of the focus

 

  1. RESEARCH PLAN

Our plan is to have contact with individuals from the CSA groups, soup kitchens and food redistribution sectors. We have reached out to the following groups and are trying to either have an face-to-face interview or a conversation on the phone: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1QqaiAaQ4fFr_-DNxNMvmM6vP_1rZbbh_JtMK-gsnZgQ/edit?ts=58e9da07#gid=0

 

We believe that the retailers are a great place to start to understand the system and where we can contribute to improve the current distribution.

 

Location

We have decided to focus on tackling this problem in NYC and create a program that can be applied to other areas around the world

 

Questions

  1. What type of food to you distribute?
  2. What is your current plan for distribution? Daily activities? Employee workflow?
  3. What does the food supply chain look like? Where do you get your resources from? Where do they go? Are there companies or governing bodies in the middle? Who else do you work alongside?
  4. How many people do you reach on a daily/yearly basis?
  5. What geographical areas/sectors do you work in?
  6. How many employees do you have per sector to run smoothly?
  7. What’s working with your current food distribution plan? What are the a struggles?
  8. How do you connect with the individuals in the community?
  9. How are they aware of your resource?
  10. Do you collect feedback from the community about your resources?
  11. What factors determine what resources you receive, where you receive from, and who to distribute to?  

 

————————————————————————————————————————-

 

Interview with Vijay Mathew (imports fruits from Europe, South America, US, and Australia into India)

 

  • Currently, globally, smaller farms are increasingly joining larger agriculture consortiums
  • These consortium either buy the land from the farmers wholly (with a potential profit-share), OR have an arrangement where the farmers contributes their produce to the consortium that then re-brands, markets and sells the produce.
  • In Belgium, for example, Belorta is the consortium that Mathew buys from.
    • Belorta has a bidding system that allows buyers (typically wholesalers) to pick produce from particular farm lots (see below for ‘Lot Number’).
  • In Chile, Verfrut is a major fruit producing company. Mathew claims they hold 75% of the fruit market share in Chile, and in addition control a lot of the internal supply chain (see below for typical supply chain) as well.  
  • In Italy, FROM is an apple/fruit consortium that is associated with a few individual companies like Val Venosta, that exports to the rest of Europe.
  • In the US, Evans Fruit started as a family-owned farm, and now operates like a consortium of smaller farms.

Current Supply Chain:

 

Farmers (small farms) → Consortium → Logistics company → Pest Test (pre-export) → Port (export) → ship → port (import) → Food Safety inspection → Certificate authenticity test → Market → Storage → Retailer → Consumer

 

Farm Lot Number:

 

Farm produce usually has a unique ID that includes the lot ID and the grower ID. This code is pasted on every box of fruit, and this remains until it’s sent to the retailer.

 

Post Interview:

Farm lot numbers and traceability , Another resource

Harvested products should be identified according to

(1) the date of harvest

(2) the particular crop harvested

(3) the field where the crop was grown

 

Follow up questions

How long does it take for the entire supply chain process?

Doing Good Final – part 2

We’re updating discussions here on google docs. We will paste it on our blogs in a more presentable manner.

https://docs.google.com/a/nyu.edu/document/d/1W4rhs0DyoU0VRyW8ziJtpOJmHVvdCr6mlZ3-KGipveI/edit?usp=sharing

Networked Media – Week 8 Readings

Last week I read this article https://www.wired.com/2004/10/tail/ titled The Long Tail.

Here’s a summary of my thoughts.

In one of my previous gigs, working as a creative technologist in advertising, we found ourselves building experiences and apps for the Chinese market. Nowhere else have I witnessed apps reaching the 6-digit user mark so quickly. Reading this article reminded me of my experiences building for China, and made me wonder what the long tail would look like in that fascinating market.

I found it interesting that Chris Anderson, the author of the post, seems to have predicted subscription models for music as early as 2006 – even down to the exact $9.99 price that spotify charges.

I found one particular comparison that the author makes tough to fully accept. He compares the performance of one physical store, which is limited by geography, with the performance of massive online retailers – which in my opinion is only fair to the point that the internet has a greater reach than individual stores. This point might seem superfluous, but a more convincing comparison would have been to compare the performance of all physical stores of a given chain relative to their online competitor.

Another part of the post that intrigued me was “channel conflict” that labels tried to avoid by pricing their physical and digital copies at the same price. In today’s world (ten years since the article was first published), we find some governments around the world trying to avoid the same sort of channel conflict between ride-sharing platforms like Uber and taxis that operate with the regular license.

On the note of Uber, demand-based prices for digital content is also something that is worth some thought. What would a surge-priced piece of content sell for? And how would our consuming habits change accordingly?

 

Wireless Power Transfer

What is it?

The transmission of electrical energy from a source (transmitter) to a load (receiver) without the use of wires or cables, but instead, by using electromagnetic fields.

Wireless power uses the same fields and waves as wireless communication. In wireless communication, the signal to noise ratio is important, but in wireless power, the efficiency rate is really important.

There are generally two techniques to wirelessly transfer power – non-radiative (near field) and radiative (far-field). The boundary between near and far is vaguely defined.

 

History

A lot of experiments were performed in the mid 19th century that allowed researchers and inventors to observe wireless transmission of energy. Towards the end of the 19th century, radio waves were used for communication.

The image below shows Nikola Tesla giving a lecture about electrostatic induction at Columbia College in 1891.

TeslaWirelessPower1891
public domain image

There are claims that back in 1899, Tesla managed to power light bulbs 25 miles away wirelessly, but I haven’t found a reliable source. All current sources link back to each other circularly.

The picture below is from a book published in 1910. It shows a bulb being lit up wirelessly.

 1910, E.E.Burns, Story Of Great Inventions (p.219).

In the early 20th century, Tesla tried to transmit power over long distances directly into homes and factories.

Tesla_Broadcast_Tower_1904
public domain image

 

The first practical demonstration of long-distance power transmission was done by William Brown in the 1960s. He invented the rectenna (rectifying antenna – used for converting electromagnetic energy into direct current (DC) electricity), and used it to power a model helicopter from the ground. The idea for a solar satellite was conceived in the late 60s.

 

Passive RFID’s were invented in the 1970s, and became mainstream in the 1990s.

Wireless Power Consortium was established in 2008. It is a multinational technology consortium that developed the Qi standard that is used for wirelessly powering devices upto 4 cm away. Asus, HTC, Huawei, LG Electronics, Motorola Mobility, Nokia, Samsung, BlackBerry, and Sony are some of the companies that are working on this standard.

 

How Does it Work

Inductive coupling is the oldest and most widely used wireless power technology, and virtually the only one so far which is used in commercial products. It is a means of non-radiative (near field) power transmission.

In inductive coupling, power is transferred between two coils of wire by a magnetic field.

The transmitter and receiver coils together form a transformer. In the image below, an alternating current (AC) through the transmitter coil (L1) creates an oscillating magnetic field (B) by Ampere’s law. The magnetic field passes through the receiving coil (L2), where it induces an alternating EMF (voltage) by Faraday’s law of induction, which creates an AC current in the receiver.

In this system, transmission efficiency improves with frequency (higher the frequency, higher the efficiency).

 

TeslaWirelessPower1891
public domain image

Resonant inductive coupling is a form of inductive coupling in which power is transferred by magnetic fields between two resonant circuits, one in the transmitter and one in the receiver. More modern applications of wireless power transfer use this method.

Capacitive coupling and magnetodynamic coupling are other near field methods which are being researched.

With regards to radiative (far-field) power transmission, power can be transmitted over multiple kilometers.

 

Future Potential

Biomedical devices

Solar satellites

Disney’s wireless room


Image credit: Disney Research. Accessed from phys.org

 

References

https://www.seeedstudio.com/Wireless-Charging-Module-p-1354.html

https://www.gutenberg.org/files/37609/37609-h/37609-h.htm

https://web.archive.org/web/20150119044123/http://www.efymagonline.com/pdf/52_Wireless%20Power%20Transfer_EFY%20August%202013.pdf

http://web.pdx.edu/~larosaa/Applied_Optics_464-564/Projects_Presented/Projects-2006/Andrew_Bomber_Report_Wireless_Power_Transmission_PH464.pdf

https://phys.org/news/2017-02-wireless-power-transmission-safely-devices.html#jCp

 

Doing Good Final – part 1

I’m not entirely sure how the final version of this post will be structured at the moment, so I apologize for any confusions. This might be broken into multiple posts, or I might just come back and edit this one.

Nouf, Chris and I are challenged with looking into the access to information as an area of research. We were asked to think about the following problems.

  1. What is the big problem (that affects 1 Billion people?)
  2. What is the specific problem (starting point that might lead to the bigger issue)?
  3. What’s the link between that and the environment you’re living in?
  4. What types of $100B tech might be able to impact this?

Nouf and I had worked on a project before to send actionable advice/information to farmers in developing countries based on data collected from their farms. We agreed to be open-minded about the outcome of this project, but decided to  to use the older project as a starting point.

I approached this exercise with the general (uninformed/unresearched) view that rapid urbanization will affect agricultural output. We probably need smart villages sooner than smart cities. My opinion is that smart homes are a luxury, but smart farms will soon be a necessity.

After some research I found that urbanization is a relatively smaller threat to agricultural output than climate change.  Currently, plenty of farmers use data to monitor and improve their yield.

High-level answers to the above questions are listed here:

  1. What is the big problem (that affects 1 Billion people?)
    We need smarter agricultural practices to feed an ever-growing population. The number of farmers is declining, and climate change is becoming an increasingly worrying challenge. 
  2. What is the specific problem (starting point that might lead to the bigger issue)?
    This is not tied to the research done last week, but from previous research. In rural India and Nicaragua, farmers don’t necessarily know the implications of certain practices, but follow them regardless due to tradition. There are agents who the farmers trust and seek advice from, but these agents are a dime-a-dozen, and they find it hard to reach as many farmers as they feel needed.
  3. What’s the link between that and the environment you’re living in?
    In the US, it’s relatively easier to find farmers who generally do trust technology and are willing to try out new techniques. They understand the growing need for better methods, and find a personal economic benefit to embracing technology.
  4. What types of $100B tech might be able to impact this?
    Artificial intelligence, machine learning, automation, driverless-vehicles, vertical-farming, could all contribute to smarter infrastructure for agriculture.

 

Here’s a link to our team’s living document where we’re sharing our research and thoughts as we move forward.

Relevant links:

http://seedstock.com/2012/04/18/five-major-challenges-facing-north-american-agriculture/

https://www.usda.gov/oce/forum/diversity/papers/2015/MelissaWoolpert.pdf

http://freewaystofarms.com/?utm_source=FarmFutures&utm_campaign=2016_2017_MonsantoClimateCorp_Display&utm_medium=display&utm_content=WebSeries_VideoTestimonial_60

http://www.rmlagtech.com/web/

 

 

 

Energy Final – Solar powered Musical instrument

 

I started this project experimenting with the 555 timer. Here’s a video of one of my initial experiments.

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

I learned that the 555 timer sends a frequency based on the relative resistance between a few pins. In the theme of building a light-powered  machine, I felt I could also affect the frequency using light. I could use any light source, but decided to use my phone for this experiment. So I built a housing that would hold the phone and the solar panel. Two light dependent resistors (LDRs) pick up light from different sections of my phone’s screen.

The instagram post below is a gallery (three pictures within the same embed), so hover over the image, and you should see an arrow show up.

#wip #madebymith making noise with light

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

 

I also wrote a couple of quick webpages that would affect the color of the screen areas at which the light dependent sensors would be pointed.

This page has two invisible sliders that affect the individual colors.

This page loops through a preset list of frequencies.

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

 

In terms of power use, I measured 3.5V at roughly 165 mA (0.5775 W) when I plugged in a 0.25W speaker module.  The 555 chip is rated for a maximum power dissipation of 600 mW.

The device uses no batteries, and gets all power from a small solar panel.

We’ve run low on camera equipment here due to thesis and finals, but I will make a nice video with me performing shortly.

Networked Media – Week 7 Readings

This week’s reading was Philip Agre – Beyond the Mirror World.

 

A few paragraphs in, I got reminded of the system Singapore has in place on all registered vehicles which was implemented in 1998 (similar timeframe to the RFP mentioned in the paper). The government’s stated goal  there was to reduce and manage traffic congestion (and my opinion is that – privacy concerns aside – it worked). The interesting / scary thing about this is that the governing body is now considering upgrading this to a satellite-based  tracking system.  That being said, in my opinion, I’d argue that we’re already carrying phones, and public transport cards on us all the time, and the data collected from these devices outweigh any considerations about the GPS-based tolls.

In the Mirror Wall section, what I really found fascinating was the discussion about video feeds from City Hall – I find myself thinking about this in a more current context like Twitter – which seems to be (one of) the medium(s) of choice for most political talk today.

Video cameras figure prominently in his vision, as befits the optical metaphor of the mirror:

Eavesdrop on decision making in progress. Among other things, you will discover video feeds down here. When you dive into City Hall, one part of the display on your screen might be a (little) TV picture. You can mouse over there and enlarge the thing, if you want to hear the mayor’s press conference or the planning board meeting. (p. 17)

 

Patterns and Permutations Workshop at ITP.

On March 15th, 2017, conducted a workshop at ITP to collaboratively create permutations of patterns inspired by Sol LeWitt’s wall drawings.

Sol LeWitt poster

 

Background & Preparation

I first held a demo / prototype workshop that spoke about LeWitt’s work. This current workshop spawned out of that. What I really liked about LeWitt’s work apart from its minimalist form, was the fact that the implementation of the work was a collaborative endeavor. I wanted to design a workshop that enabled participants to create similar visuals collaboratively, through the use of current tools – like code, phone cameras, and the web.

I wanted participants (who I will henceforth refer to as my collaborators) to have the freedom to create patterns with any method they choose. So, I created a simple web service that allowed them to draw and / or upload their own visuals into the system that would randomly pick visuals from each of them, and create permutations of these patterns.

I decided to try out many patterns myself in preparation for the workshop.

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

Pattern-ception 😀

A post shared by Mithru Vigneshwara (@mithru) on

Workshop plan

  • Introduction, purpose of workshop
  • Sol LeWitt
    • Introduction
    • Wall Drawings
    • Examples
  • Patterns
    • What is a pattern?
  • Permutations
    • What are permutations?
    • Examples
    • Exercise – calculate permutations possible depending on size of group
  • Collaborative session
    • Quick how-to session
    • Workshop coordinator sets first rule
      • Generate patterns based on that rule
    • Collaborators set rules in turns (coordinator to ensure the rules keep changing)
    • Example rules:
      • Draw with online tool
        • Start at one corner, end at another corner
      • Take pictures
        • Floor board
        • Straight lines
        • Colors
        • Textures
      • Code
        • Lines
        • Ellipses
        • Colors
        • Fractal patterns
      • Recreate LeWitt’s wall drawings

 

 

Feedback

Feedback from the workshop collaborators (participants) can be viewed here.

 

Documentation

Link to photos from workshop (https://goo.gl/photos/3svoAYiHi3jqNSmXA)

Link to patterns generated in workshop (https://goo.gl/photos/GRcfMaUG3xwXMJP47)

IMG_20170319_152804

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